Assume the role of a prestigious University Professor on a team of Anatomy & Physiology exam experts. On this team, you have been appointed as the expert on the central nervous system (CNS), brain, and spinal cord.
- Write 15 multiple choice exam questions that thoroughly cover the following CNS topic areas:
- Classification of Nerve Cells
- The Physiology of the Nerve Impulse
- The Synaptic Transmission
- The Reflex Arc
- Grouping of Neural Tissue
- The Spinal Cord
- The Functions of the Spinal Cord
- The Principle Parts of the Brain
- The Anatomy and Function of the Brainstem
- The Anatomy and Functions of the Diencephalon
- The Cerebrum: Structure and Function
- The Cerebellum: Structure and Function
- All question and answer choices must be presented within a multiple-choice format with each authored question set consisting of three (3) incorrect answer choices and one (1) correct answer choice.
- Each question must be fully supported by a clear explanation with references formatted APA style, as to why the three (3) other choices are incorrect.
- Questions copied and pasted from any existing source, i.e., general searches on the internet, existing textbook questions, existing NCLEX and other existing exams, etc., will not be considered and will receive a grade of zero (0).
This is a netlike region of cells and fibers that extends throughout the brainstem and functions to help maintain consciousness?
- Nucleus ambiguus
- Cuneate nucleus
- Reticular formation – Correct Answer
- Pyramidal decussation
1. The Nucleus ambiguus is a group of large motor neurons sitting within the reticular formation of the medulla oblangata and helps to innervate the muscles of the soft palate, pharynx and larynx.
Wang, J., Irnaten, M., Neff, R.A., Venkatesan, P., Evans, C., Loewy, A.D., Mettenleiter, T.C. and Mendelowitz, D. (2001) Synaptic and neurotransmitter activation of cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. 940:237-46. Ann:NY, Academy of Science.
2. The Cuneate nucleus is part of the posterior column (medial lemniscus pathway) and is responsible for carrying proprioception and fine touch from above T6 (excluding the face and ear) to the thalamus (contralateral side) via the medial lemniscus.
3. Jörntell, H., Bengtsson, F., Geborek, P., Spanne, A., Terekhov, A.V. and Hayward, V. (2017) Neuron. 83(6): 1444–1452. Segregation of Tactile Input Features in Neurons of the Cuneate Nucleus.
4. Pyramidal decussation is the crossing of fibers of the corticospinal tracts near the junction of the medulla and the spinal cord in the central nervous system.
Neurosurg, J. (1986). Neuroanatomy of the pyramidal decussation. (6):884. Landau:WM.