Please respond to the following:
· From the weekly readings and first e-Activity, analyze two (2) major pressures that a public administrator faces from shareholders, customers, stakeholders, and employees. Propose two to three (2-3) key actions that public administrators can take in order to maintain a leadership style in the face of such pressures. Justify your response.
· From the weekly readings and second e-Activity, compare the U.S. health system that you have researched to the centralized healthcare in European health systems. Propose two (2) actions that both health systems could take in order to make each structure more cost effective and operationally efficient. Provide a rationale for your response
· Read the following articles located in Week 4 of the course shell and be prepared to discuss:
o “Leading in The Shared-Power World of 2020”
o “Leading to Make a Difference: A Field Experiment on the Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership, Perceived Social Impact, and Public Service Motivation”
o “Symposium Conclusion: Future Research on the Dimensions of Collaboration”
· Use the Internet to research a large independent health system within the U.S. that utilizes a combination of centralized and decentralized leadership operational approaches (e.g., Kaiser, etc.). Next, use the Internet to research centralized healthcare in European health systems. Be prepared to discuss.
Professional Ethics in Public Service
The question of ethics and public confidence is not a new one. In 1952 Adlai Stevenson, governor of Illinois said, “Public confidence in the integrity of the government is in-dispensable to faith in democracy, and when we lose faith in the system, we lose faith in everything we fight and spend for.”
Ethics, the standards of behavior that tell us what we ought to do in our personal and professional lives, applies to all individuals, organizations, and society as a whole. High ethical standards are especially important in the public sector because they are key to credibility and lead to increased support for government agencies and political leaders.
Creating a culture of ethics in an organization can best be accomplished with the adoption of a values-based code of ethics. The ideal time to undertake the effort is when the individuals and the organization are unanimous in their commitment. Ethics codes cannot serve as a “flu shot” to prevent a problem, nor can the codes be used as an “antibiotic” to cure an ethics problem. Once established, the code must apply to everyone including elected and appointed officials, professional staff, and commissioners, as well as volunteers, vendors, and contractors.
A major goal of an ethics program is to increase awareness of ethics and values in the workplace. An example of creating a culture of ethics can be found in the development of a code of ethics and values undertaken by the city of Santa Clara, Calif.
Once the city council endorsed the concept, a committee of stakeholders worked to develop a list of 70 values. They then consulted with groups from all sectors of the city to determine those values they considered critical as standards of conduct. These became the foundation for the code, which was adopted and has been implemented across city government.
The simple adoption of a code will not ensure success. There are five keys to building an ethical organization:
1. Leadership: Public policy makers and top administrators call for ethics as a priority and demonstrate that in word and deed.
2. Commitment: All involved make the time, budget the money, plan the program.
3. Collaboration: All the stakeholders work to develop consensus and design the program.
4. Implementation: The program includes a strategy for making ethics an integral part of the organization.
5. Reflection and Renewal: Ongoing assessment includes annual re-adoption of the code and exploration of ways to communicate to new employees, vendors, residents, and members of the media.