Instructions: A major skill that is learned in this course is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles. The purpose for critiquing an article is to critically evaluate the research process followed by the author(s) of the assigned article. This is an information and time intensive process that is not learned overnight. To demonstrate your skill at critiquing an article, you will complete this open-book multiple choice assignment.
Here’s how you should approach completing this week’s assignment to finish critiquing an article:
1. First, do your assigned reading in Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) and complete the reading worksheets early in the week. This will introduce you to the critique skills you will need for the week.
2. Skim the entire instructor assigned research article that has been posted on Blackboard for you so that you will have an idea of what it is about. Then, for this week, re-read carefully the first half of the article, starting with the abstract and stopping after the first paragraph of the results or “findings” section.
3. Print this document and find the best answer to each question below based on your Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) assigned reading for the week and what you have read in the instructor assigned research article.
4. Some of the questions in the critique assignment below will seem unfamiliar to you. Look up key terms from the question in your textbook. Some examples of these terms might be: problem statement, variables, and cross-sectional. You can also look in Chapter 12 for an example of a critical appraisal (or critique) of a quantitative research article.
5. Once you have completed this assignment “on paper”, go into blackboard and enter your answers by the assignment due date and time listed in the syllabus. Ignore any wording from Blackboard that indicates that “this is a test” and carefully enter your answers from this document.
6. You will have two access attempts to record your answers. This is given to you so that if you encounter technical difficulties on your first attempt, or you would like a second attempt to try to improve your grade, you may do so. You will not be able to see the questions that you missed when you submit your attempt. Blackboard will record the highest grade from the two submissions.
If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to your group discussion board for help. Please do not post the exact question from the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute academic dishonesty.
Questions 1 – 4: Research Problem and Purpose. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 2, 5, and 12)
1. Which choices below best reflect the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article?
a. The purpose of this study was to compare the occupational stressors, the perceived stress levels, and coping styles of three generations of medical surgical nurses.
b. The nature and scope of stress and the effects on the generations of nurses in the workplace are unclear.
c. Gen Y nurses, which represent 12% of the US workforce,want flexible working arrangements and to achieve a work-life balance.
d. No studies have compared the occupational stress among the three generations and in particular in medical surgical nurses.
2. Which of the choices below best reflects the purpose statement for the instructor assigned article?
a. Occupational stress negatively affects the nature of the caring relationship and healing environment, interfering with the nurses’ ability to observe, listen to, understand, and know the patient.
b. Many studies have addressed occupational stress among nursing specialties and healthcare settings.
c. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the occupational stressors, the perceived stress levels, and coping styles among Baby Boomer, Gen X, and Gen Y MedSurg nurses.
d. The stress and coping theory of Folkman and Lazarus was used as the theoretical framework for the study. It provides a testable model for understanding occupational stress among the three targeted nursing generations.
3. According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which of the following statements are important when considering the significance and relevance of a study’s problem and purpose? (Select all that apply.)
a. Does it consider ethical principles in its design?
b. Does it predict the non-significant findings anticipated in the study?
c. Does it specifically influence nursing education in university settings?
d. Does it identify the future research to be generated by the study?
e. Does it promote theory testing or development?
f. Does it identify extraneous variables?
4. When considering the feasibility of a study’s problem and purpose, Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) suggest that several areas should be evaluated, including: researcher expertise, money commitment, ethical considerations, and availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment. Which of the following statements accurately assesses the feasibility of this article? (Select all that apply.)
a. Funding sources for the study were clearly identified in the article.
b. The author’s credentials to design and conduct research are described.
c. 100% of the eligible subjects contacted participated in the study.
d. Evidence of protection of the subjects’ rights was mentioned in this article.
Questions 5 – 7: Review of the Literature. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 6 & 12.)
5. According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which one of the following is NOT a major purpose of the review of literature (ROL):
a. Describing the current knowledge of the practice problem
b. Identifying gaps in the knowledge base of the practice problem
c. Explaining how the current study contributes to the knowledge being built
d. To explain the reasons behind the selection of the statistics used in the study.
6. Select three MAJOR topics covered in the review of literature (ROL) from the list below:
a. Occupational stressors were found to be significant predictors for perceived stress among all generations of nurses in this sample.
b. The nature and scope of stress and the effects on the generations of nurses in the workforce are unclear.
c. A descriptive correlational design was used to examine the relationship of occupational stress, age, years of experience, education level, and stress perception among a sample of MedSurg RNs.
d. Occupational stress affects individuals differently based on perceptions and personal characteristics.
e. The researcher used for instruments that were administered in the following order: the Demographic tool, the Nursing Stress Scale (NSS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Ways of Coping Scale (WAYS).
f. Many studies have addressed occupational stress among nursing specialties and healthcare settings.
7. Current knowledge in the review of literature (ROL) (all information included before the “Methods”) is considered to be articles that are within 5 years of the publication date of the article. This is often assessed by reviewing the citations that are used in the ROL and counting the number that meet this criteria. Which number below most closely reflects the number of current citations in the ROL? (HINT-look for references in the ROL that are between 2014-2010.)
Questions 8 – 10: Study Framework. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 7 & 12)
8. Which of these statements best describes this study’s research framework?
a. This study has an implicit framework, which is not fully developed.
b. The theoretical framework supporting the research is stress and coping by Folkman and Lazarus (1985).
c. The authors developed the study’s theoretical framework based on Carver and Candela’s (2008) Theory of Generational Nursing with manager knowledge as an antecedent.
9. What are some of the key concepts in this study’s theoretical framework?
a. This study does not have any clearly defined concepts within a framework because it has an implicit framework.
b. Manager’s understanding of intergenerational relationships will result in an improved nursing work environment.
c. It is important to determine which antecedent variables explain stress appraisal as a loss/harm, challenge, or threat.
10. Which one of the statements below is an example of a relational statement from the theoretical framework?
a. Stress is a major component of nursing and can be detrimental to nurse retention.
b. This study does not have any clearly defined relational statements because it has an implicit framework.
c. Coping strategies used by each generational cohort may (or may not) be the same.
Questions 11 – 15: Research objectives, questions, or hypotheses and research variables. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 5 & 12)
11. The author states that a research objective, question, or hypothesis in this study was “Will age cohort significantly affect perceived stress levels?” on page 633. This is best described as a
a. Research objective
b. Research question
c. Research hypothesis
d. None of the above
12. Which of these are considered to be MAJOR study variables in this study. (Select all that apply)?
a. occupational stressors
b. Generation X nurses
c. psychological empowerment
d. perceived stress levels
e. manager interactions with nursing staff
f. job turnover among generations
13. What is the conceptual definition (as defined in the review of the literature) of the following study variable: coping styles.
a. The factors that influence coping styles of nurses need to be better understood.
b. The conceptual definition of coping styles is not clearly provided in the review of the literature.
c. The stress and coping theory of Folkman and Lazarus was used as the theoretical framework for the study.
d. Occupational stress affects individuals differently based on perceptions and personal characteristics.
14. What is the operational definition (as defined in the methods section) of the following study variable: coping styles.
a. The conceptual definition of coping styles is not clearly provided in the review of the literature
b. The Ways of Coping Scale (WAYS)
c. No studies have compared occupational stress among the three generations and in particular in the medical surgical nurses.
d. The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS)
15. Which demographic variables were assessed by the author for this study? (Select all that apply.)
b. Years of experience as a manager
c. Marital status
d. Highest education level
e. Generational cohort self-identification
Questions 16- 19: Research Design (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 1, 8, & 12)
16. Which phrases best describe the research design of this study? (Select all that apply.)
e. Mixed methods
17. Which phrase best describes the time element of the research design of this study?
a. Cross-sectional design
b. Longitudinal design
c. None of the above
18. Does the study include a treatment or intervention described in the methods section?
a. The Ways of Coping Scale (WAYS) used in the study may be considered a treatment or intervention.
b. 5262 medical surgical nurses were invited to participate in the intervention.
c. A control group of nurse technicians were also asked to complete the survey.
d. This study was not designed with a treatment or intervention.
19. Does the author specifically mention that a pilot study was done prior to conducting this study? (Hint: look at the words “prior to this study”.)
20. The authors indicate on page 635 of the article that the institutional review board (IRB) authorization was acquired. This indicates than an IRB gave approval to conduct the research. In addition, anonymity and confidentiality was protected. Per Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which of the following would NOT be considered essential information for informed consent? (Select all that apply.)
a. a statement of the research purpose and any long-term goals of the study
b. a copy of the abstract of the article that will be used in the publishing journal.
c. an explanation of the procedures to be followed in the study
d. a complete list of references to be used in the study.